Tag Archives: infant memory

Reflecting on my 70th

Birthdays and anniversaries are times for celebration, and reaching “three-score years and ten” years is certainly worth a big three cheers! But they are important for reflection as well.

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Renmark Reunion September 2015

Gratitude to God and to the most important people in my life over these 70 years are features I’d like to be emblematic of me.  I am still surrounded with so many loving and kind people, I have enjoyed wonderful peace and excellent health, and my contribution in several circles is still wanted and apparently appreciated.

Ten days ago Helen and I gathered to celebrate my 70th birthday with our 4 children, their spouses and our 11 beautiful grandchildren.  A wonderful 5 days . . .

October 6th is ten days after my birth-day and  marks the 70th anniversary of the life-saving surgery I had in the Netherlands.  I would not be writing this but for that day in my life!

Together with the country of my birth and background, my weary and expecting parents were struggling to emerge from the ordeal of World War 2.  And then I arrived, their long-awaited first child, but soon clearly defective: scary, uncontrollable and life-endangering vomiting (infant pyloric stenosis – “PS”).  And these were times when medical science was pretty rough and ready by today’s standards and when people didn’t dwell on what they’d rather forget.

Pic 12

Mother with me – October 1945

So October 6th marks what I now realise was the gift of a new and wonderful second start in life, but also the beginning of a life-shaping journey of exploration and discovery – outside of me and within.

Outside, my parents were unwilling or unable to answer my reasonable questions about the 10 cm scar on my belly, and this drove me to look for information elsewhere.  But until the advent of the web, this search yielded only cold textbook medical data about PS and the then 33 year old surgical fix for the condition.  And explanations of my deeper issues were nowhere to be found: there were no pointers to where these might be unearthed and no ways of identifying people who could help me to realise (as I do now) that my pain was by no means wacky.

Book coverWithin, I was tormented with private pain from the dawn of my self-consciousness until recent years.  Even now I am still working to piece my private pain-puzzle together, although the web has given me access to much information, clarification and to networking with fellow-survivors, all of which has enabled me to receive and share much healing.  Since 2012 I have blogged about my journey, and in 2014 a pediatric surgeon friend and I published a small book, in which he explained what many still regard as the elusive cause of PS and I outlined my personal experience of this condition. It so happens (in Australia at least) that October 6 falls in “Mental Health Week” – and my own story has certainly helped me to feel a sense of identity with people challenged by mental health issues.

Time changes things!  The past 70 years have taught us the value of openness in the home, the importance of both listening and speaking for healing, of collaboration in achieving goals, and (by no means least) we have learnt much about trauma.

70 years have also brought huge changes to surgical technique and to holistic care in the hospital and home.  Time seems to have done less to change the unhelpful attitudes of some in the medical profession – but that’s due to human nature being far from perfect.

What do these changes (and their lack in some respects) mean?

120327-07-WgHcThe kind of trauma symptoms I struggled with is rare among more recent PS survivors.  Their surgical scars are sometimes almost indiscernible, usually tidy and very rarely as gnarly.  Affected children’s and their parents’ questions are typically answered much more fully and sympathetically, and the children are helped to understand, “own” and even feel pride about their story.

As I see it, I have discerned this is the growth in myself.  I am indeed a survivor from a bygone era of medical practice and parenting, and my scar is an exhibit of mid-20th century surgery.  I know it’s not socially correct for a cultured older gentleman like me to proudly show off his scar as an 8 year old lad might… but I’m catching up on lost joys and enjoying it!

Is there a link between infant PS and later abdominal trouble?

Most General Practitioners (GPs) will reject any link out of hand.  Some GPs have even been known to ask their patient (or client) what “PS” (pyloric stenosis) is.

We can be sure that every medical textbook and training includes at least a page or part of a lecture on PS, which is the most common reason for non-elective surgery on infants in their first months and years.  But who can blame a medical student for not remembering everything they are told and read over six or more packed years?

However, the almost universal denial of a link between PS and later abdominal trouble is more than a nuisance.  It may be “textbook” but it misleads and misinforms the parents of a PS baby and most will continue with this false assurance until they discover the truth – usually only after much frustration.  As for PS survivors, they are the immediate and personal subjects of the widespread ignorance and misinformation about the possible long-term gastric and other problems that can come with PS and/or its surgery.

113This kind of trouble does not seem to afflict the majority of PS survivors, and may only affect a small minority.  But considering PS affects between 2 and 5 in every 1,000 babies, that is still a lot of people!  I have on file hundreds of stories just from those who have told something of their story on Facebook’s several PS Group pages – and elsewhere!  There are several other social forum sites carrying the stories of worried or unhappy PSers.

The pattern is typically like this:

  • The “survivors” endure some years of increasingly nagging (though not mortal) discomfort, pain and frustration with real but unidentified gastric and/or other abdominal symptoms (tightness, pain, bloating, irritable bowels, dietary misbehaviour, vomiting, etc.
  • Their doctors seem loathe to acknowledge these symptoms, giving their patients medication or dietary advice.
  • There is outright rejection of PS possibly having long-term consequences – the high acidity of PS, damage to the gastric passage and even the lungs (from ingested vomit), post-surgical adhesions, and trauma after old-style infant surgery and hospitalization are just some of the hazards which should be considered.  All of these possible conditions have been documented and reported in medical literature.
  • It seems that often the “survivor” discovers the link between their malady and their PS past only when they stumble onto an online forum where they find they are not alone.

Sadly, because PS-related problems are low on the medical world’s radar for several reasons, there is virtually no interest in researching them.  Hence the medical juggernaut rolls on in rejection and ignorance.  However, there have been a few small studies and (from what I have found) just one very large study that have confirmed that infant PS is not always free of long-term consequences.

If the reader is interested to trawl through enough pages of stories on this blog and on the screens of the largest three of Facebook’s PS Groups, they will also find reports that several GI specialists have (usually after many, many consultations) admitted to a connection, agreed on tests, and arrived at better advice treatment.

In 2014 a pediatric surgeon friend and I published a small book, in which he explained what many still regard as the elusive cause of PS and I outlined my personal experience of this condition.

Pain01Lay reading of medical journals and even a basic understanding of how our gut and PS work tell us there certainly can be a link.  More specifically, the high acid that causes PS continues with the patient, raising the risk of related issues including reflux, irritable bowels, esophageal damage, and gastric ulcers and cancer.  Reduced gastric emptying could well be caused by damage to the vagus nerve or adhesions from the operation constricting the working of the stomach and gall bladder, whilst the throat / voice problems are likely caused by erosion / scarring of the esophagus caused by reflux, high acid, or lack of care with the breathing tube during surgery.

Of course anyone with any such symptoms would need a proper diagnosis but it’s not hard for even lay people to understand the links.  With countless numbers from my Facebook networks, I plead with the medical profession, parents, patients and the family and friends of PS survivors to recognise and help spread the awareness of this quite common condition and its possible ramifications.

And if what you the reader has learnt here “rings a bell” … I sincerely hope that you have been greatly encouraged to pursue your problem and get it sorted out.

Understanding ourselves after infant surgery trauma

Some personal experiences are hard to share.

We can relate to many of the personal experiences we hear about: by the time we reach middle age many of us have been through an illness or an accident; we have probably experienced childbirth (if not personally then as a very close and trusted family member or friend); the death of a close relative or friend also happens to everyone sooner or later.  We can identify fairly well with many such life events.

But deep trauma can be more difficult to understand.  If we have never experienced near death or serious abuse in one form or other, we can say, “Yes, I understand…”, but we don’t really to a great extent.  Those of us who have suffered deep trauma usually feel the need to find somebody else who has experienced something similar, or a counsellor who is trained to listen and help us.

In November 2014 I wrote a series of posts on professional doctors, psychiatrists and counsellors who have done ground-breaking work in helping patients and professional helpers to understand infant trauma.  Reading some of the key work of people like Drs K J S Anand and P R Hickey, the late Dr David Chamberlain, the late Dr Louis Tinnin, and others has been an “Ah!” moment of discovery and gratitude to people like me who have been affected by infant surgery (including circumcision) as that was so often practised before the 1990s, without general or even local anesthesia, using other crude, painful and invasive procedures, and with long periods of maternal deprivation.

ponderFor much of my childhood I was obsessed with a very obvious surgical scar in the middle of my belly, the result of 1945 surgery to remedy pyloric stenosis when I was just 10 days old.  From my parents’ ultra-scant comments, I soon came to understand this early episode in my life story was one they’d rather forget.  From the medical reports of the time which I’ve been able to read in recent years, I have learnt that infant surgical technique in 1945would have been basic, and it was followed by at least 2 weeks of isolation in hospital to guard against infection.

When my self-awareness awoke between the age of 5 and 6, I soon became obsessed with my scar, addicted to re-enacting what little I knew about my surgery in childish ways, and then to increasing self-harm.  It is not helpful or necessary to go into details here, but readers who have had similar problems and feel a need to find greater clarity, healing and reassurance should feel free to email me via the links at the end of other “pages” on this blog’s header.

Why I felt these deep and irresistible urges I did not understand for most of my life, but they troubled me.  I believe my parents could have helped me by (1) explaining my surgery and scar, and (2) helping, persuading, tempting and rewarding me to accept and feel proud of my story and scarred body rather than fearfully hiding it from public view.  But I also wonder whether the power of the trauma of my early surgery might have overridden anything anyone tried to do later!

VdKolkBessel 2015Last week our Australian national radio aired an interview with the US Prof. Bessel van der Kolk whose writings have recently been overviewed and quoted by my blogging colleague Wendy P Williams.  A New York Times article about Dr van der Kolk is also well worth reading.  Yet another article about van der Kolk’s work on infant trauma has been made available by those advocating an end to routine circumcision in the USA.

Dr van der Kolk’s website has links to his work, programs and publications, one of which at least is also freely available online and well worth reading.

Prof. Van der Kolk is undoubtedly correct in saying that trauma caused by events in childhood and in later life is causing a hidden epidemic of personal, family and social problems.  Only in recent years have childhood abuse and military service begun to be more widely recognised as often causing deep-seated and lasting damage.  Even now the military establishment often tries to deny or ignore the obvious damage done by PTSD.

Van der Kolk is also correct in his observation that the numbers afflicted by the trauma of childhood and later vastly outnumber those affected by the infant surgery and mass circumcisions of past years.

However, I have never yet heard of a study of the possible long-term effects of circumcision in the light of what van der Kolk and so many others (including the above trailblazers) have documented as the life-long effects of infant trauma.  Such a study may not make pleasant reading but would very quickly and certainly become “a barbeque stopper” and might even be a “game changer”.

Although Dr van der Kolk does not seem to have encompassed old-time early surgery in his work on childhood trauma, I can shout in my loudest voice that from what I have read, what he has written about the effects of childhood hurt is totally true of my journey after infant pyloric stenosis.  Thank you, Dr Bessel van der Kolk and others, for helping me to understand myself and find healing!

An email from Sarah

A hardly-known fact is that many of the people who had surgery in infancy before the 1990s were not given a general anesthetic, and of these not everyone was given pain killers.  This awful fact has understandably been kept out of the public domain as much as possible, which was not very difficult before the advent of the internet and social media, but it is now reported and conceded by many.

frustrated01Giving a general anesthetic to infants in the first two years was too complex and risky for many doctors until the later 20th century, and because locally administered painkillers affect the tissue around the incision, many surgeons chose to have their infant patients simply intubated (given an artificial breathing tube down their throat) and then paralysed. It seems parents were rarely told the details of what infant surgery involved, and probably chose not to ask. After all, the life of their new treasure was at stake. Can we blame them?

Most medical students accepted the mantra that “babies do not feel or remember pain” and so surgical procedures ranging from circumcision to abdominal and chest surgery were often done without pain management – and without much further concern.

Several of my posts have been about the huge change forced on the medical establishment by the research, writing and advocacy of  Drs K J S Anand and P R Hickey since 1987.  (You can find these posts using the “Categories” Search-box at the top right.)  Together with their work, it also became clear that many who had had early surgery without pain control had struggled (usually lifelong) with post-traumatic stress.  The late Dr David Chamberlain, the late Dr Louis Tinnin, Dr Robert Scaer and others have studied, published material on pre-verbal memory and trauma, and developed therapies to treat PTSD arising from infant trauma caused by abuse, surgery, and tragedy.

One of the links most relevant to these matters is to the blogsite Restory your Life, published by my friend and blogging colleague Wendy P Williams.  Her blogging has concentrated on what has been written about PTSD after infant surgery, and on therapies that have been developed and found helpful.

But there is always more to be said and explored on this subject area.

This past month I received an email from Sarah, which I pass on with minimal editing –

blog-writing1Firstly, just wanted to say thanks for your great blog.  I have found a lot of reassurance and inspiration.  My infant trauma was different, but as you know there’s not a lot of info out there, especially written by people who have experienced it, so it’s been so helpful.  Also I’m sorry for what you went through and how it was (not) handled.  It’s great that you’re helping to make things better for babies now, I hope that also gives your young self some comfort.

I found some more stuff and you may already have it, but thought I’d send it just in case you haven’t.

The first is the book The Trauma Spectrum by Robert Scaer.  It has a really great chapter on pre-verbal trauma.  He also points out similar things to you about infant pain management.  It’s ridiculous to think babies wouldn’t feel pain.

The second is an article by Dr Bruce Perry, How we remember.  It’s about infant sexual abuse, but I think the principles are the same.

The third is a PDF written for caregivers of traumatised children and infants.  It’s by Dr Perry too.

Fourth, a book called Transformative Nursing in the NICU: Trauma-Informed Age-Appropriate Care by Mary Coughlin.  Can’t afford it and haven’t read it, but it looks like something all medical professionals helping infants could really use.

People think I’m kind of weird when they find out how much I think and read about trauma, so it’s sort of nice to ‘meet’ another person who has handled theirs in one similar way.

Well, keep up the excellent work, I wish you all the very best.

 In response to my emailed thanks and response, Sarah replied –

Of course you can pass my email on, and put on your website.  It’s the least I can do to thank you for your very much appreciated blog.  Thanks for introducing g me to Wendy’s blog, I really liked the artwork.  It was interesting hearing a little more about how you found healing, I somehow imagine a lot of us are big readers.  The networking is such a good idea, I’m glad you eventually managed to find more people.

I found another book, it’s called Pre-Parenting: Nurturing Your Child from Conception.  The relevant bit is about how even foetuses have consciousness, memory, feelings and other important things.  It has some amazing stories of very young kids accurately telling their birth stories when they learn to talk.  Interesting to think about what he’s written in the context of infant trauma.

Thanks and best wishes to you too.

Shhh02I had infant surgery to relieve a fairly common and fatal stomach blockage (pyloric stenosis) in the dim, distant and tongue-tied past; in 1945 most people didn’t talk about unpleasant matters.  So I know almost nothing about the operation and associated matters and had no help in coming to terms with their consequences.  It has taken me much of my lifetime to piece together the puzzle parts that tell me that whatever happened to me (and my parents) resulted in the clear symptoms of PTSD (albeit mild) with which I have struggled until recent years.

PTSD which results from something that happened in our infancy is lodged in our pre-verbal memory.  This makes it more complex and much harder to recognise, understand and treat than traumatic events which we can consciously remember.

Sarah’s emails and the references she has shared here underline that people struggle with PTSD caused by all kinds of events which they have remembered pre-verbally (in their “somatic” or body memory).

Sarah has also reminded me that all those affected by infant trauma share similar feelings and frustrations, and can draw on the same interpretations and treatment of our symptoms.

And finally, Sarah’s reference links make me feel encouraged that there are always more people than I had known about or imagined working to bring healing to those of us affected by trauma of infancy.

Are Pyloric Stenosis problems history yet?

In my previous post I explored the horrible old mantra that “babies have no brain and therefore will not feel or remember pain”.

When I was just 10 days old I had my first surgical operation, for a pyloric stenosis (“PS”, a blockage at the stomach’s outlet) which occurs fairly commonly in between 2 and 5 baby boys and about one girl in every 1,000.  In 1945 (and for several decades after this) the trauma easily caused by what is today regarded as simple surgery was not understood –

  • the operation was often done without a general anesthetic, sometimes even without local pain control because of the major hazards and possible side-effects of each;
  • hospital stays after such an operation were routinely 2 weeks;
  • in hospital sick and recovering babies were routinely separated from their mother to reduce the danger of infection and they were fed on bottled milk;
  • the effects of these practices on the infant’s parents were usually discounted and masked by a code of silence, which often made them even more toxic in the long-term on parent and patient.
  • What I have outlined here has had a lifelong effect on me, and most likely also my parents, although they maintained their silence to their deaths many years ago.

Nerdy MD2One effect of this on me has been a lifelong and obsessive interest in PS and infant surgery.  In recent years what I have learnt and continue to learn has been channelled into teaching and advocacy for the a list of “issues” around these two subjects –

  • What is PS and how was it treated yesterday and is it treated today?
  • Can surgery for infant PS be avoided?
  • How can PS and its surgery affect the infant’s parents?
  • How can they affect the patient in the immediate and long-term?
  • Why is the diagnosis of PS often so frustratingly delayed and what can be done about this?
  • How can parents deal with the problems babies frequently have after the operation?
  • How can PS survivors deal with some remarkably similar problems that all-too-often arise in adult life?
  • Do babies feel and remember pain and other trauma of their pre-verbal stage of life?
  • What are the symptoms of PTSD that seem linked to early infant surgery, and what therapies and programs are available to those affected?
  • Since gaining access to the internet in 1997, I have learnt much about all the “issues” listed, from websites, blogs, social forums, and some valuable personal interactions and friendships that have resulted.

In 2015 I plan to continue sharing and interacting with the PS community via this blog, as well as on several social forums, notably the various Facebook Groups committed to offering support, sharing information and raising awareness about PS.

SeatonHarlan age 4 Fb 140502-2PS survivors and their parents on Facebook sometimes express their profound gratitude that some of the issues I have listed above are now largely becoming consigned to the historical record.

Greatly improved support for parents, good pain management, new surgical techniques that much reduce disfigurement, and short hospital stays are now standard.  Parents may also remark that there seems to be a slowly growing change in the medical professions’ awareness of PS and their attitude to PS parents: less professional paternalism, arrogance and conceit.  Changing social attitudes and better education in medical school seems to be germane to this.

However, it is also quite clear that we are far from being able to “move on” and go fishing!

“No brain, no pain”? That’s insane!

Can a baby remember trauma experienced in her or his first years?

In times past the answer was an insistent “No”.  Before about 1990 it was commonly believed that because virtually nobody can recall and describe any event from early childhood, be it happy or troubling, a baby makes and keeps no record of anything before what we can later recall and express in words.

This of course sounded very reassuring and comforting!

  • The serious mistakes some parents make when a baby is very young – no memory, no record, no damage.
  • Family, life and health dramas which a little one survives – no need to worry about it affecting baby.
  • Separation from mother, adoption, foster relationships – none of this will harm a little one.
  • Will we have our baby son circumcised “so he looks like his dad”?  “Go ahead, no worries!”
  • My baby needs life-saving surgery but anesthetising a baby is risky – “Just go ahead, she won’t really suffer.”
  • A baby’s screams under the knife upset a young theatre nurse – “Hey, he won’t remember anything.”

Evidence contrary to these soothing assurances must have been as clear and widespread as it is today.  If you dare, just check out one of the YouTube videos on what happens when an infant boy is circumcised without pain control.  Still more amazing to us today is that it was believed by many until recently that babies not only don’t remember pain – they don’t feel it!

Besides this, hospitals until recently were “holy places”, the word “holy” meaning “separated, inaccessible”.  Children under 12 were not allowed to visit, a husband couldn’t support his wife in labour, and the fear of infection meant many patients (even babies) were not visited (or touched) while in hospital.

arrogant doc4The health and medical community was fed these “no brain, no pain” mantras in class and then recited them with the absolute authority and firmness that came with their position, especially in earlier times.  Parents and patients would rarely question a doctor’s word.  Doubts, even those arising from observing the painfully obvious, were dismissed.  And doctors were only challenged by “difficult people”.

This situation was of course possible only in the simpler, more authoritarian, and much less informed times which today’s older generations remember well – but only Gen-X’ers and their seniors!

We must remember that there were few alternatives.  Pediatric medicine as a specialist field was not born until 1950, and even after that time anesthetics and pain control were often “basic” compared with today.  All anesthetics (even today) carry risk, and rendering a child under age 3 unconscious involves some additional and substantial risk factors.  In the past a baby’s surgery and pain relief were usually managed by people who did most of their work on older children and adults, so it is not surprising that general anesthesia was often avoided and that the surgery done with enough skill but often little finesse.

So the “no brain, no pain” mantras of past medical science not only suited the times but also served to help parents to cope better with a lot of the all-too-common dramas of family life, including infant surgery.

These beliefs also fitted well with another feature of those earlier times which many of the older generation may remember but still resent:

  • most parents had little or no understanding of their child’s or their own psychology;
  • children were “to be seen but not heard” and were too often “stonewalled” –“Just go and play!”
  • many parents were reticent to talk about uncomfortable things like inner feelings, painful experiences, and uncomfortable subjects.

Baby unhappy01In 1945 I had an operation when 10 days old to control pyloric stenosis, and the details of that were always kept from me. In other posts I have written about how the sad but understandable ways of the past have affected me and many others who had earlier infant surgery.  They did so in a variety of ways –

  • some were affected and/or traumatised as babies by the relative ignorance, inadequacies and failings of medical science and the hospital regime;
  • others were affected by the mantras I have discussed;
  • others again were disturbed by their parents’ inability to help them understand their story and inner being.

People like the “heroes” I have mentioned or discussed in several of the previous posts have been crucial and foundational in challenging some of the medical world’s beliefs and attitudes of the past.  They have researched the old shibboleths and shown them to be utterly wrong.  They have explained how trauma and pre-verbal memories can affect even tiny babies.  They have worked on effective therapies to manage the damage and bring healing and wholeness.

I am so thankful for these people’s skill, insight, courage and determination.  They have changed many lives very much for the better – including mine.

Minimising the pain of infant surgery

“Twenty-five years ago, when Kanwaljeet Anand was a medical resident in a neonatal intensive care unit, his tiny patients, many of them preterm infants, were often wheeled out of the ward and into an operating room.  He soon learned what to expect on their return.  The babies came back in terrible shape: their skin was gray, their breathing shallow, their pulses weak.  Anand spent hours stabilizing their vital signs, increasing their oxygen supply and administering insulin to balance their blood sugar.”

Anand KJS 2014Hickey Paul R 2014The previous post here mentioned Drs K J S Anand and Paul R Hickey, who came to prominence in 1987 by exposing the fact that much infant surgery to that time was being done without sufficient or any pain relief because of the often-heard and widely-held mantra that “fetuses and babies don’t feel or remember pain”.

In a research report in the leading New England Journal of Medicine these men told of the scientific work and findings that had led them to expose this fallacy.  The distinguished New York Times promptly publicised Dr Anand’s work in 1987 and several more times in later years.  A quarter century later, articles in the magazine USA Today in 2005 and in 2008 The New York Times again helped give the Drs Anand and Hickey’s world-wide publicity.  The quotation above is from the latter article; here is another excerpt from journalist Anne Murphy Paul’s February 2008 NYT feature, The First Ache:

“When the surgeon lowered his scalpel to the 25-week-old fetus, [anesthesiologist] Paschall saw the tiny figure recoil in what looked to him like pain.  A few months later, he watched another fetus, this one 23 weeks old, flinch at the touch of the instrument.  That was enough for Paschall.  In consultation with the hospital’s pediatric pain specialist, ‘I tremendously upped the dose of anesthetic to make sure that wouldn’t happen again,’ he says.  In the more than 200 operations he has assisted in since then, not a single fetus has drawn back from the knife.”

The Just Facts website gives a factual summary of the current knowledge of when and how we humans begin to sense and remember pain – starting not in our first years but much, much earlier, in the first months after our conception.  Fetal or pre-natal surgery has become possible for a list of congenital conditions including spina bifida, tumours, and heart defects which can threaten a newborn’s hold on life or its quality.  The proof that foetuses feel pain has clear implications for pre-natal surgery and other medical practices.  And, we might argue, how much more so for newborn infants.

This quotation from the website makes one wonder why the medical world has denied the reality of pre-natal and infant pain for so long:

“Physicians know that foetuses feel pain … because [among other things]: ‘Nerves connecting the spinal cord to peripheral structures have developed between six to eight weeks.  Adverse reactions to stimuli are observed between eight and 10 weeks…. You can tell by the contours on their faces that aborted foetuses feel pain.’”

The ground-breaking study of Drs Anand and Hickey has had far-reaching consequences since 1987.

  • The September 1987 issue of the USA-based Pediatrics journal posted its revision of the policies and protocol of US pediatricians. However, I have noticed that an American Society of Anesthiologists overview of the history of pediatric anesthesia in the USA published in 2011 made many references to major and significant changes in this field but no mention of the landmark work of Dr Anand and others, of the major revision of their policy and practice, nor of the opposition to these changes in some quarters!
  • Baby anesth01Change there has been nevertheless, supported by the growing recognition that pediatric surgery and anesthesia are indeed specialist disciplines, and by the development of safer drugs and management of their use. Crudely performed infant surgery and minimal pain control of medical procedures on infants are increasingly regarded as unacceptable and should become increasingly rare.  The incidence of long-term trauma effects will also be greatly reduced.
  • Dr Anand’s work is part of a growing and worldwide recognition of the trauma that old-style infant surgery could cause. In the previous post I mentioned other specialists in the fields of medicine, psychiatry, clinical psychology and child development who have contributed greatly to this recognition and thus also to its management and treatment.  In coming posts I plan to review the contributions of such people.

Those who have needed infant surgery (and even those subjected to elective infant circumcision) and their distressed parents owe Drs Anand and Hickey and their like a huge debt of gratitude.  As someone who had rather basic pyloric stenosis surgery back in 1945, I have certainly learnt much and been hugely helped in my own self-understanding and healing from the long-term effects of my infant surgery.